Lipophilic Salts and Lipid-Based Formulations for Bridging the Food Effect Gap of Venetoclax

Niklas J. Koehl, Laura J. Henze, René Holm, Martin Kuentz, John J. Keating, Thomas De Vijlder, Andreas Marx, Brendan T. Griffin*

*Corresponding author

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review


Lipid based formulations (LBF) have shown to overcome food dependent bioavailability for some poorly water-soluble drugs. However, the utility of LBFs can be limited by low dose loading due to a low drug solubility in LBF vehicles. This study investigated the solubility and drug loading increases in LBFs using lipophilic counterions to form lipophilic salts of venetoclax. Venetoclax docusate was formed from venetoclax free base and verified by 1H NMR. Formation of stable venetoclax-fatty acid associations with either oleic acid or decanoic acid were attempted, however, the molecular associations were less consistent based on 1H NMR. Venetoclax docusate displayed a up to 6.2-fold higher solubility in self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) when compared to the venetoclax free base solubility resulting in a higher dose loading. A subsequent bioavailability study in landrace pigs demonstrated a 2.5-fold higher bioavailability for the lipophilic salt containing long chain SEDDS compared to the commercially available solid dispersion Venclyxto® in the fasted state. The bioavailability of all lipophilic salt SEDDS in the fasted state was similar to Venclyxto® in the fed state. This study confirmed that lipophilic drug salts increase the dose loading in LBFs and showed that lipophilic salt-SEDDS combinations may be able to overcome bioavailability limitations of drugs with low inherent dose loading in lipid vehicles. Furthermore, the present study demonstrated the utility of a LBF approach, in combination with lipophilic salts, to overcome food dependent variable oral bioavailability of drugs.

TidsskriftJournal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Udgave nummer1
Sider (fra-til)164-174
Antal sider11
StatusUdgivet - jan. 2022

Bibliografisk note

Funding Information:
N.J. Koehl, L.J. Henze, B.T. Griffin, R. Holm and M. Kuentz are part of the PEARRL European Training network, which has received funding from the Horizon 2020 Marie Sklodowska-Curie Innovative Training Networks programme under grant agreement No. 674909.


  • Lipid based formulations
  • Lipophilic salts
  • Salt formation, Co-crystals
  • Venetoclax

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