Staphylococcus aureus is recognized as an important pathogen causing a wide spectrum of diseases. Here we examined the antimicrobial effects of the lectin isolated from leaves of Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi (SteLL) against S. aureus using in vitro assays and an infection model based on Galleria mellonella larvae. The actions of SteLL on mice macrophages and S. aureus-infected macrophages were also evaluated. SteLL at 16 µg/mL (8 × MIC) increased cell mass and DNA content of S. aureus in relation to untreated bacteria, suggesting that SteLL impairs cell division. Unlike ciprofloxacin, SteLL did not induce the expression of recA, crucial for DNA repair through SOS response. The antimicrobial action of SteLL was partially inhibited by 50 mM N-acetylglucosamine. SteLL reduced staphyloxathin production and increased ciprofloxacin activity towards S. aureus. This lectin also improved the survival of G. mellonella larvae infected with S. aureus. Furthermore, SteLL induced the release of cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, and TNF-α), nitric oxide and superoxide anion by macrophagens. The lectin improved the bactericidal action of macrophages towards S. aureus; while the expression of IL-17A and IFN-γ was downregulated in infected macrophages. These evidences suggest SteLL as important lead molecule in the development of anti-infective agents against S. aureus.