Influence of behavioral plasticity and foraging strategy on starvation tolerance of planktonic copepods

Mark Wejlemann Holm, Rocio Rodriguez-Torres, Benni Winding Hansen, Rodrigo Almeda

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

Resumé

Starvation is considered a major cause of non-predatory mortality in zooplankton. Planktonic copepods display behavioral plasticity and small-scale behaviors associated with different foraging strategies that can affect starvation tolerance. However, little is still known about the influence of behavior on starvation tolerance in zooplankton. Here, we experimentally investigated behavioral changes and survival of planktonic copepods (adults and nauplii) with different foraging strategies under prolonged starvation. The behavioral response to starvation varied depending on the foraging strategy. The strict ambusher Oithona nana showed a low and, almost constant, motile activity (relocation jumps, <4% of the time) whereas the feeding-current feeder Temora longicornis swam for most of the time (~100%) without reducing their activity under prolonged starvation. The switching-behavior feeder Acartia tonsa move actively in the presence of food but had a low motile activity in absence of food (~12%) and decreased its motile activity during starvation (from ~12% to 3%). The observed behavioral responses to the absence of food can be broadly classified in terms of motility as: (i) “sit-and-wait” strategy for copepods with low motile activity under starvation (mostly relocation jumps) and (ii) “searching” strategy for copepods with high motility activity (swimming/cruising) under starvation. Median survival time in absence of food increased with increasing copepod body weight and it was ~1.75 fold lower in active feeders (“searching” strategy under starvation) than in ambush and switching-behavior feeders (“sit-and-wait” strategy under starvation). Thus, copepods with foraging strategies linked to a low motility (ambush feeders) and/or with behavioral plasticity to reduce motility in absence of food (switching -behavior feeders) would cope better with resource limitation/fluctuation than some active feeders. We demonstrate that behavioral plasticity and motile activity associated with foraging strategy significantly influences starvation tolerance in planktonic copepods. These results help to quantify the main trade-offs (gain vs costs) of the main zooplankton foraging strategies and emphasize that behavior is a key trait to understand the distribution of planktonic copepods in marine environments depending on trophic conditions.
OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftJournal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology
Vol/bind2019
Udgave nummer511
Sider (fra-til)19-27
Antal sider9
ISSN0022-0981
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 2019

Citer dette

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title = "Influence of behavioral plasticity and foraging strategy on starvation tolerance of planktonic copepods",
abstract = "Starvation is considered a major cause of non-predatory mortality in zooplankton. Planktonic copepods display behavioral plasticity and small-scale behaviors associated with different foraging strategies that can affect starvation tolerance. However, little is still known about the influence of behavior on starvation tolerance in zooplankton. Here, we experimentally investigated behavioral changes and survival of planktonic copepods (adults and nauplii) with different foraging strategies under prolonged starvation. The behavioral response to starvation varied depending on the foraging strategy. The strict ambusher Oithona nana showed a low and, almost constant, motile activity (relocation jumps, <4{\%} of the time) whereas the feeding-current feeder Temora longicornis swam for most of the time (~100{\%}) without reducing their activity under prolonged starvation. The switching-behavior feeder Acartia tonsa move actively in the presence of food but had a low motile activity in absence of food (~12{\%}) and decreased its motile activity during starvation (from ~12{\%} to 3{\%}). The observed behavioral responses to the absence of food can be broadly classified in terms of motility as: (i) “sit-and-wait” strategy for copepods with low motile activity under starvation (mostly relocation jumps) and (ii) “searching” strategy for copepods with high motility activity (swimming/cruising) under starvation. Median survival time in absence of food increased with increasing copepod body weight and it was ~1.75 fold lower in active feeders (“searching” strategy under starvation) than in ambush and switching-behavior feeders (“sit-and-wait” strategy under starvation). Thus, copepods with foraging strategies linked to a low motility (ambush feeders) and/or with behavioral plasticity to reduce motility in absence of food (switching -behavior feeders) would cope better with resource limitation/fluctuation than some active feeders. We demonstrate that behavioral plasticity and motile activity associated with foraging strategy significantly influences starvation tolerance in planktonic copepods. These results help to quantify the main trade-offs (gain vs costs) of the main zooplankton foraging strategies and emphasize that behavior is a key trait to understand the distribution of planktonic copepods in marine environments depending on trophic conditions.",
keywords = "Zooplankton, Behavior, Starvation tolerance, Foraging strategies, Motile activity, Copepods",
author = "Holm, {Mark Wejlemann} and Rocio Rodriguez-Torres and Hansen, {Benni Winding} and Rodrigo Almeda",
year = "2019",
doi = "10.1016/j.jembe.2018.11.002",
language = "English",
volume = "2019",
pages = "19--27",
journal = "Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology",
issn = "0022-0981",
publisher = "Elsevier BV",
number = "511",

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Influence of behavioral plasticity and foraging strategy on starvation tolerance of planktonic copepods. / Holm, Mark Wejlemann; Rodriguez-Torres, Rocio; Hansen, Benni Winding; Almeda, Rodrigo.

I: Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, Bind 2019, Nr. 511, 2019, s. 19-27.

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Influence of behavioral plasticity and foraging strategy on starvation tolerance of planktonic copepods

AU - Holm, Mark Wejlemann

AU - Rodriguez-Torres, Rocio

AU - Hansen, Benni Winding

AU - Almeda, Rodrigo

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - Starvation is considered a major cause of non-predatory mortality in zooplankton. Planktonic copepods display behavioral plasticity and small-scale behaviors associated with different foraging strategies that can affect starvation tolerance. However, little is still known about the influence of behavior on starvation tolerance in zooplankton. Here, we experimentally investigated behavioral changes and survival of planktonic copepods (adults and nauplii) with different foraging strategies under prolonged starvation. The behavioral response to starvation varied depending on the foraging strategy. The strict ambusher Oithona nana showed a low and, almost constant, motile activity (relocation jumps, <4% of the time) whereas the feeding-current feeder Temora longicornis swam for most of the time (~100%) without reducing their activity under prolonged starvation. The switching-behavior feeder Acartia tonsa move actively in the presence of food but had a low motile activity in absence of food (~12%) and decreased its motile activity during starvation (from ~12% to 3%). The observed behavioral responses to the absence of food can be broadly classified in terms of motility as: (i) “sit-and-wait” strategy for copepods with low motile activity under starvation (mostly relocation jumps) and (ii) “searching” strategy for copepods with high motility activity (swimming/cruising) under starvation. Median survival time in absence of food increased with increasing copepod body weight and it was ~1.75 fold lower in active feeders (“searching” strategy under starvation) than in ambush and switching-behavior feeders (“sit-and-wait” strategy under starvation). Thus, copepods with foraging strategies linked to a low motility (ambush feeders) and/or with behavioral plasticity to reduce motility in absence of food (switching -behavior feeders) would cope better with resource limitation/fluctuation than some active feeders. We demonstrate that behavioral plasticity and motile activity associated with foraging strategy significantly influences starvation tolerance in planktonic copepods. These results help to quantify the main trade-offs (gain vs costs) of the main zooplankton foraging strategies and emphasize that behavior is a key trait to understand the distribution of planktonic copepods in marine environments depending on trophic conditions.

AB - Starvation is considered a major cause of non-predatory mortality in zooplankton. Planktonic copepods display behavioral plasticity and small-scale behaviors associated with different foraging strategies that can affect starvation tolerance. However, little is still known about the influence of behavior on starvation tolerance in zooplankton. Here, we experimentally investigated behavioral changes and survival of planktonic copepods (adults and nauplii) with different foraging strategies under prolonged starvation. The behavioral response to starvation varied depending on the foraging strategy. The strict ambusher Oithona nana showed a low and, almost constant, motile activity (relocation jumps, <4% of the time) whereas the feeding-current feeder Temora longicornis swam for most of the time (~100%) without reducing their activity under prolonged starvation. The switching-behavior feeder Acartia tonsa move actively in the presence of food but had a low motile activity in absence of food (~12%) and decreased its motile activity during starvation (from ~12% to 3%). The observed behavioral responses to the absence of food can be broadly classified in terms of motility as: (i) “sit-and-wait” strategy for copepods with low motile activity under starvation (mostly relocation jumps) and (ii) “searching” strategy for copepods with high motility activity (swimming/cruising) under starvation. Median survival time in absence of food increased with increasing copepod body weight and it was ~1.75 fold lower in active feeders (“searching” strategy under starvation) than in ambush and switching-behavior feeders (“sit-and-wait” strategy under starvation). Thus, copepods with foraging strategies linked to a low motility (ambush feeders) and/or with behavioral plasticity to reduce motility in absence of food (switching -behavior feeders) would cope better with resource limitation/fluctuation than some active feeders. We demonstrate that behavioral plasticity and motile activity associated with foraging strategy significantly influences starvation tolerance in planktonic copepods. These results help to quantify the main trade-offs (gain vs costs) of the main zooplankton foraging strategies and emphasize that behavior is a key trait to understand the distribution of planktonic copepods in marine environments depending on trophic conditions.

KW - Zooplankton

KW - Behavior

KW - Starvation tolerance

KW - Foraging strategies

KW - Motile activity

KW - Copepods

U2 - 10.1016/j.jembe.2018.11.002

DO - 10.1016/j.jembe.2018.11.002

M3 - Journal article

VL - 2019

SP - 19

EP - 27

JO - Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology

JF - Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology

SN - 0022-0981

IS - 511

ER -