The genetic trait that allows intestinal lactase to persist into adulthood in some 35% of humans worldwide operates at the level of transcription, the effect being caused by cis-acting nucleotide changes upstream of the lactase gene (LCT). A single nucleotide substitution, -13910 C>T, the first causal variant to be identified, accounts for lactase persistence over most of Europe. Located in a region shown to have enhancer function in vitro, it causes increased activity of the LCT promoter in Caco-2 cells, and altered transcription factor binding. Three other variants in close proximity, -13907 C>G, -13915 T>C and -14010 G>C, were later shown to behave in a similar manner. Here, we study four further candidate functional variants. Two, -14009 T>G and -14011 C>T, adjacent to the well-studied -14010 G>C variant, also have a clear effect on promoter activity upregulation as assessed by transfection assays, but notably are involved in different molecular interactions. The results for the two other variants (-14028 T>C, -13779 G>C) were suggestive of function, -14028*C showing a clear change in transcription factor binding, but no obvious effect in transfections, while -13779*G showed greater effect in transfections but less on transcription factor binding. Each of the four variants arose on independent haplotypic backgrounds with different geographic distribution.