In recent years lines along which structure and dynamics are invariant to a good approximation, so-called isomorphs, have been identified in the thermodynamic phase diagrams of several model liquids and solids. This paper reports computer simulation data of the transverse and longitudinal collective dynamics at different length scales along an isomorph of the Lennard-Jones system. Our findings are compared to corresponding results along an isotherm and an isochore. Confirming the theoretical prediction, the reduced-unit dynamics of the transverse momentum density is invariant to a good approximation along the isomorph on all time and length scales. Likewise, the wave-vector dependent shear-stress autocorrelation function is found to be isomorph invariant (with minor deviations at very short times). A similar invariance is not seen along the isotherm or the isochore. Using a spatially nonlocal hydrodynamic model for the transverse momentum-density time-autocorrelation function, the macroscopic shear viscosity and its wave dependence are determined, demonstrating that the shear viscosity is isomorphic invariant on all length scales studied. This analysis implies the existence of a length scale that is isomorph invariant in reduced units, i.e., which characterizes each isomorph. The transverse sound-wave velocity, the Maxwell relaxation time, and the rigidity shear modulus are also isomorph invariant. In contrast to the isomorph invariance of all aspects of the transverse dynamics, the reduced-unit dynamics of the mass density is not invariant on length scales longer than the interparticle distance. By fitting to a generalized hydrodynamic model, we extract values for the wave-vector-dependent thermal diffusion coefficient, sound attenuation coefficient, and adiabatic sound velocity. The isomorph variation of these quantities in reduced units on long length scales can be eliminated by scaling with the density-scaling exponent, a fundamental quantity in the isomorph theory framework; this is an empirical observation that remains to be explained theoretically.
Bibliografisk noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the VILLUM Foundation's Matter grant (No. 16515).