Epistemic and Evidential Sentence Adverbials in Danish and English

A Comparative Study

Janus Mortensen

Publikation: Bog/antologi/afhandling/rapportRapportFormidling

Resumé

I dette speciale undersøger og sammenligner jeg hvordan de to substanskategorier epistemisk modalitet og evidentialitet er kodet i adverbialsystemer i dansk og engelsk. Specialet bygger på en antagelse om at sprogbrugere på både dansk og engelsk har adgang til en række systematisk ordnede sætningsadverbialer som kan bruges til at eksplicitere hvilken styrke eller hvilken kilde der ligger bag de udsagn de fremsætter. De sætningsadverbialer som angiver styrke, kaldes i specialet epistemiske, mens de som angiver kilde, kaldes evidentielle.

I kapitel 1 præsenterer jeg de to spørgsmål som specialet har til hensigt at besvare: Hvordan er epistemisk modalitet og evidentialitet kodet i adverbialsystemer på dansk og engelsk? Og: Hvilke forskelle og ligheder er der mellem den måde de epistemiske og evidentielle adverbialsystemer er organiseret på i henholdsvis dansk og engelsk? Jeg påpeger at de epistemiske og evidentielle adverbialer, til forskel fra de danske og engelske modalverber, stadig er relativt uudforskede som grammatisk kategori.

I kapitel 2 præsenterer jeg afhandlingens teoretiske fundament, der primært udgøres af den funktionelle videreførsel af klassisk europæisk strukturalisme som er udviklet inden for rammerne af Dansk Funktionel Lingvistik. For at imødekomme specialets fokus på sætningsadverbialer og komparativ lingvistik inddrages endvidere elementer af den skandinaviske polyfoniteori og teori om komparativ lingvistik.

I kapitel 3 redegør jeg for analysens tertium comparationis, som på indholdssiden udgøres af substanskategorierne epistemisk modalitet og evidentialitet, på udtrykssiden af den grammatiske kategori ‘sætningsadverbial'. Med inspiration i Kronnings (2004) beskrivelse af epistemisk modalitet og evidentialitet som henholdsvis kunskapens styrka og kunskapens källa argumenterer jeg for at angivelsen af henholdsvis ‘styrke' og ‘kilde' kan ses som de primære funktioner af epistemisk modalitet og evidentialitet. For at præcisere og operationalisere disse begreber trækker jeg på de definitioner af epistemisk og evidentiel betydning som er præsenteret i Boye (2005).

I kapitel 4 redegør jeg for den metode jeg har anvendt i analysen af de epistemiske og evidentielle adverbialer. Metoden kan betegnes som en kombination af klassisk strukturalistisk metode og elementer af nyere korpusinspirerede metoder. For hvert adverbial jeg undersøger i specialet, har jeg indsamlet 10 kontekstualiserede eksempler fra henholdsvis www.politiken.dk og www.guardian.co.uk. Denne eksempelsamling har jeg anvendt som en hypotesegenererende ramme i samspil med kommutationsprøver i en proces som bedst kan beskrives som abduktion i Peirces forstand (Peirce 1965 [1903]).

Kapitel 5 og 6 udgør specialets hoveddel. I disse to kapitler undersøger jeg hvordan epistemisk modalitet og evidentialitet er kodet i adverbialsystemer i henholdsvis dansk og engelsk. Jeg viser at forskellene og lighederne mellem de individuelle medlemmer af de epistemiske og evidentielle sætningsadverbialsystemer i begge sprog såvel som forskellene og lighederne mellem de to sprogs systemer kan forklares med henvisning til et begrænset antal (semantiske) distinktive træk. Af disse er kilde og styrke de to primære træk, mens modalfaktor og ansvar udgør to sekundære træk. De epistemiske adverbialers primære funktion, på begge sprog, er at angive hvilken grad af styrke der sættes bag det propositionelle indhold. Sekundært angiver de hvor denne styrke eller kraft har sin oprindelse (modalfaktorposition). Den primære funktion af de evidentielle adverbialer, på begge sprog, er at angive hvilken kilde der ligger bag det propositionelle indhold. Sekundært angiver de hvilken ansvarsrelation der eksisterer mellem afsender og det propositionelle indhold.

Undersøgelsen af de danske adverbialer (Kapitel 5) omfatter følgende adverbialer (ordnet i alfabetisk rækkefølge): angivelig, antagelig, formentlig, formodentlig, givetvis, ikke nødvendigvis, muligvis, måske, nok, nødvendigvis, sandsynligvis, tilsyneladende, tydeligvis, utvivlsomt, vel, vist, øjensynlig og åbenbart. Jeg viser at det på baggrund af en række udtrykskriterier er muligt at opdele denne overordnede gruppe i to distinkte systemer, System I og System II. Nok, vel og vist udgør System I, mens de andre adverbialer tilhører System II. Jeg definerer de tre medlemmer af System I som epistemisk-evidentielle adverbialer idet de alle koder både styrke og kilde. Adverbialerne i System II kan derimod klart opdeles i henholdsvis epistemiske og evidentielle adverbialer. Gruppen af epistemiske adverbialer udgøres af antagelig, formentlig, formodentlig, givetvis, ikke nødvendigvis, muligvis, måske, nødvendigvis, sandsynligvis og utvivlsomt, mens gruppen af evidentielle adverbialer omfatter angivelig, tilsyneladende, tydeligvis, øjensynlig og åbenbart. I analysen viser jeg at forskellene mellem de danske adverbialer i hovedtræk kan forklares med henvisning til de fire distinktive træk nævnt ovenfor.

Undersøgelsen af de engelske adverbialer (Kapitel 6) omfatter de følgende adverbialer (ordnet i alfabetisk rækkefølge): allegedly, apparently, certainly, clearly, definitely, evidently, inevitably, maybe, necessarily, not necessarily, obviously, perhaps, possibly, presumably, probably, reportedly, seemingly, surely og undoubtedly. På baggrund af semantiske kriterier opdeler jeg disse adverbialer i to overordnede grupper af epistemiske og evidentielle adverbialer. De epistemiske adverbialer opdeles yderligere i to undergrupper, Gruppe 1 og Gruppe 2. Gruppe 1 indeholder adverbialer der angiver forskellige punkter på det semantiske kontinuum fra mulighed til nødvendighed. Denne gruppe består af inevitably, maybe, necessarily, not necessarily, perhaps, possibly, presumably og probably. Gruppe 2 indeholder adverbialer der har at gøre med angivelse af sikkerhed, nemlig certainly, definitely, surely og undoubtedly. På samme vis opdeler jeg de evidentielle adverbialer i to grupper. Gruppe 1 består af adverbialer der har at gøre med perception/sansning (ofte i en abstrakt forstand): apparently, clearly, evidently, obviously og seemingly. Gruppe 2 består af adverbialer som har rapporterende funktion: reportedly og allegedly. I analysen viser jeg at forskellene mellem de engelske adverbialer i hovedtræk kan forklares med henvisning til de fire distinktive træk nævnt ovenfor.

I Kapitel 7 sammenligner jeg måden hvorpå de danske og engelske systemer er organiseret. Den tydeligste forskel som mine analyser viser, er adverbialerne i dansk fordeler sig på to systemer hvorimod Engelsk, overordnet set, kun har et system. Det danske System I skiller sig klart ud, både på udtrykssiden og indholdssiden, og jeg argumenterer for at det kan betragtes som mere grammatikaliseret end de andre systemer. Det danske System II ligner til gengæld det engelske system i sin opbygning. I begge tilfælde er der en klar, semantisk motiveret opdeling i epistemiske og evidentielle adverbialer. For de epistemiske adverbialers vedkommende viser jeg at systemerne på dansk og engelsk i høj grad ligner hinanden, om end Gruppe 2 i engelsk skiller sig ud. Hvad angår de evidentielle adverbialer, viser jeg at mens de danske adverbialer entydigt koder en specifik kildetype, enten subjektiv, intersubjektiv eller objektiv, er de engelske evidentielle adverbialer typisk uspecificerede mellem to kildetyper på det strukturelle niveau.

I Kapitel 8 afslutter jeg specialet med at konkludere at den analyse jeg har præsenteret, repræsenterer en kohærent funktionel-strukturel forståelse af de epistemiske og evidentielle adverbialer i dansk og engelsk.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
Antal sider140
StatusUdgivet - 2006
Udgivet eksterntJa

Note vedr. afhandling

MA dissertation in Danish and English, Roskilde University, Department of Culture and Identity. Supervised by Lars Heltoft and Bent Preisler.

Citer dette

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I argue that in comparison to the modal verbs in Danish and English, the group of epistemic and evidential adverbials has so far remained fairly unexplored as a grammatical category. In chapter 2, I present the theoretical framework of the dissertation, which is primarily constituted by Danish Functional Linguistics. To accommodate the dissertation's particular focus on sentence adverbials and the comparative aspect of the study, this framework is complemented by elements of Scandinavian polyphony theory as well as theory of contrastive linguistics. In chapter 3, I outline the tertium comparationis of the analysis. Content-wise, the comparison revolves around the two notional categories of ‘epistemic modality' and ‘evidentiality' while the grammatical category of ‘sentence adverbial' constitutes the expression based tertium. With inspiration in Kronning's (2004) characterization of epistemic modality and evidentiality as kunskapens styrka and kunskapens k{\"a}lla I argue that specification of ‘force' and specification of ‘source' can be seen as the primary functions of epistemic modality and evidentiality. In order to make these notions operational I draw on the definitions of epistemic and evidential meaning presented in Boye (2005). In Chapter 4, I present the method I have employed in the analysis of the epistemic and evidential adverbials. The method may be characterised as an integration of traditional methods of structural linguistics with methods inspired by corpus linguistics. For the purpose of the dissertation I have compiled a reference sample which consists of ten randomly selected contextualized examples of the adverbials under investigation drawn from www.politiken.dk and www.guardian.co.uk. The reference sample has been used as a hypothesis generating medium and a test frame, in a process which is most adequately described as abduction, in the sense of Peirce (1965 [1903]). Chapters 5 and 6 make up the bulk of the report. In these two chapters I investigate how the notional categories of epistemic modality and evidentiality are structured by adverbial systems in Danish and English. I show that the differences and similarities between the individual members of the epistemic and evidential systems in both languages can generally be explained by recourse to a limited number of distinctive features, of which force and source are the primary ones, while ‘modal factor' and ‘responsibility' are secondary ones. Epistemic adverbials are essentially concerned with the specification of force and secondarily with modal factor position, i.e. the specification of the origin of the source. Evidential adverbials are essentially concerned with the specification of source, and secondarily with the specification of responsibility, which concerns the relation between the speaker and the propositional content of the utterance. The investigation of the Danish adverbials (Chapter 5) includes the following adverbials (in alphabetical order): angivelig, antagelig, formentlig, formodentlig, givetvis, ikke n{\o}dvendigvis, muligvis, m{\aa}ske, nok, n{\o}dvendigvis, sandsynligvis, tilsyneladende, tydeligvis, utvivlsomt, vel, vist, {\o}jensynlig and {\aa}benbart. I show that it is possible to split this group into two distinct systems, System I and System II, on the basis of morphologic, syntactic and, especially, topological criteria. System I consists of nok, vel and vist, while the remaining adverbials belong to System II. I determine the members of System I to be epistemic-evidential adverbials because they concomitantly code force and source. The members of System II, on the other hand, are clearly divided into epistemic and evidential adverbials. The epistemic ones are: antagelig, formentlig, formodentlig, givetvis, ikke n{\o}dvendigvis, muligvis, m{\aa}ske, n{\o}dvendigvis, sandsynligvis and utvivlsomt, while the group of evidential adverbials consists of: angivelig, tilsyneladende, tydeligvis, {\o}jensynlig and {\aa}benbart. In the analysis I show that the difference between the adverbials can generally be explained by recourse to the mentioned four distinctive features. The investigation of the English adverbials (Chapter 6) includes the following adverbials (in alphabetical order): allegedly, apparently, certainly, clearly, definitely, evidently, inevitably, maybe, necessarily, not necessarily, obviously, perhaps, possibly, presumably, probably, reportedly, seemingly, surely and undoubtedly. On the basis of semantic criteria I divide these adverbials into two overall groups of epistemic and evidential adverbials. The epistemic adverbials are further divided into two subgroups: Group 1, which consists of adverbials that are concerned with the continuum ranging from possibility to necessity, viz. inevitably, maybe, necessarily, not necessarily, perhaps, possibly, presumably and probably, and Group 2, which consists of adverbials that constitute claims to certainty, viz. certainly, definitely, surely and undoubtedly. Similarly, the evidential adverbials are divided into two groups: Group 1, which consists of members that are concerned with perception (often in an abstract sense), viz. apparently, clearly, evidently, obviously and seemingly, and Group 2, which consists of adverbials that are concerned with report, viz. reportedly and allegedly. In the analysis I show that the difference between the members can generally be explained by recourse to the mentioned four distinctive features. In chapter 7, I compare the way the Danish and English systems are organized. The most significant overall difference I point out is that while Danish has two distinct adverbial systems that code epistemic modality and evidentiality, English, generally speaking, has only one. The Danish System I clearly stands out, both in terms of expression and content, and I argue that it is more grammaticalized than the other systems. The Danish System II, on the other hand generally resembles the English system. In both cases there is a clear semantically motivated difference between epistemic and evidential adverbials. As far as the epistemic systems are concerned I show that they are in fact organised quite similarly in the two languages, although Group 2 of the English adverbials stands out. As far as the evidential adverbials are concerned I show that they are organized quite differently in the two languages. The Danish evidential adverbials are mono-source adverbials, i.e. they invariably specify one type of source, subjective, intersubjective or objective, while the English adverbials are typically unspecified between two source types at the structural level. Finally, in chapter 8, I end the dissertation by concluding that the presented analysis provides a coherent functional-structural description of the systems of epistemic and evidential adverbials in Danish and English and present some perspectives for further research.",
author = "Janus Mortensen",
year = "2006",
language = "English",

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Epistemic and Evidential Sentence Adverbials in Danish and English : A Comparative Study. / Mortensen, Janus.

2006. 140 s.

Publikation: Bog/antologi/afhandling/rapportRapportFormidling

TY - RPRT

T1 - Epistemic and Evidential Sentence Adverbials in Danish and English

T2 - A Comparative Study

AU - Mortensen, Janus

PY - 2006

Y1 - 2006

N2 - In this dissertation I investigate and compare how the notional categories of epistemic modality and evidentiality are structured by adverbial systems in Danish and English. The dissertation is founded on a hypothesis that speakers of Danish as well as English in their respective languages have access to a number of systematically organized sentence adverbials that allow them to specify which degree of force or which type of source supports the utterances they put forward. Sentence adverbials that specify degree of force may be called epistemic, while those that specify source may be called evidential. In Chapter 1, I present the two research questions the dissertation sets out to answer, viz. how are the notional categories of epistemic modality and evidentiality structured by adverbial systems in Danish and English? And: what are the differences and similarities between the systems of epistemic and evidential sentence adverbials in Danish and English? I argue that in comparison to the modal verbs in Danish and English, the group of epistemic and evidential adverbials has so far remained fairly unexplored as a grammatical category. In chapter 2, I present the theoretical framework of the dissertation, which is primarily constituted by Danish Functional Linguistics. To accommodate the dissertation's particular focus on sentence adverbials and the comparative aspect of the study, this framework is complemented by elements of Scandinavian polyphony theory as well as theory of contrastive linguistics. In chapter 3, I outline the tertium comparationis of the analysis. Content-wise, the comparison revolves around the two notional categories of ‘epistemic modality' and ‘evidentiality' while the grammatical category of ‘sentence adverbial' constitutes the expression based tertium. With inspiration in Kronning's (2004) characterization of epistemic modality and evidentiality as kunskapens styrka and kunskapens källa I argue that specification of ‘force' and specification of ‘source' can be seen as the primary functions of epistemic modality and evidentiality. In order to make these notions operational I draw on the definitions of epistemic and evidential meaning presented in Boye (2005). In Chapter 4, I present the method I have employed in the analysis of the epistemic and evidential adverbials. The method may be characterised as an integration of traditional methods of structural linguistics with methods inspired by corpus linguistics. For the purpose of the dissertation I have compiled a reference sample which consists of ten randomly selected contextualized examples of the adverbials under investigation drawn from www.politiken.dk and www.guardian.co.uk. The reference sample has been used as a hypothesis generating medium and a test frame, in a process which is most adequately described as abduction, in the sense of Peirce (1965 [1903]). Chapters 5 and 6 make up the bulk of the report. In these two chapters I investigate how the notional categories of epistemic modality and evidentiality are structured by adverbial systems in Danish and English. I show that the differences and similarities between the individual members of the epistemic and evidential systems in both languages can generally be explained by recourse to a limited number of distinctive features, of which force and source are the primary ones, while ‘modal factor' and ‘responsibility' are secondary ones. Epistemic adverbials are essentially concerned with the specification of force and secondarily with modal factor position, i.e. the specification of the origin of the source. Evidential adverbials are essentially concerned with the specification of source, and secondarily with the specification of responsibility, which concerns the relation between the speaker and the propositional content of the utterance. The investigation of the Danish adverbials (Chapter 5) includes the following adverbials (in alphabetical order): angivelig, antagelig, formentlig, formodentlig, givetvis, ikke nødvendigvis, muligvis, måske, nok, nødvendigvis, sandsynligvis, tilsyneladende, tydeligvis, utvivlsomt, vel, vist, øjensynlig and åbenbart. I show that it is possible to split this group into two distinct systems, System I and System II, on the basis of morphologic, syntactic and, especially, topological criteria. System I consists of nok, vel and vist, while the remaining adverbials belong to System II. I determine the members of System I to be epistemic-evidential adverbials because they concomitantly code force and source. The members of System II, on the other hand, are clearly divided into epistemic and evidential adverbials. The epistemic ones are: antagelig, formentlig, formodentlig, givetvis, ikke nødvendigvis, muligvis, måske, nødvendigvis, sandsynligvis and utvivlsomt, while the group of evidential adverbials consists of: angivelig, tilsyneladende, tydeligvis, øjensynlig and åbenbart. In the analysis I show that the difference between the adverbials can generally be explained by recourse to the mentioned four distinctive features. The investigation of the English adverbials (Chapter 6) includes the following adverbials (in alphabetical order): allegedly, apparently, certainly, clearly, definitely, evidently, inevitably, maybe, necessarily, not necessarily, obviously, perhaps, possibly, presumably, probably, reportedly, seemingly, surely and undoubtedly. On the basis of semantic criteria I divide these adverbials into two overall groups of epistemic and evidential adverbials. The epistemic adverbials are further divided into two subgroups: Group 1, which consists of adverbials that are concerned with the continuum ranging from possibility to necessity, viz. inevitably, maybe, necessarily, not necessarily, perhaps, possibly, presumably and probably, and Group 2, which consists of adverbials that constitute claims to certainty, viz. certainly, definitely, surely and undoubtedly. Similarly, the evidential adverbials are divided into two groups: Group 1, which consists of members that are concerned with perception (often in an abstract sense), viz. apparently, clearly, evidently, obviously and seemingly, and Group 2, which consists of adverbials that are concerned with report, viz. reportedly and allegedly. In the analysis I show that the difference between the members can generally be explained by recourse to the mentioned four distinctive features. In chapter 7, I compare the way the Danish and English systems are organized. The most significant overall difference I point out is that while Danish has two distinct adverbial systems that code epistemic modality and evidentiality, English, generally speaking, has only one. The Danish System I clearly stands out, both in terms of expression and content, and I argue that it is more grammaticalized than the other systems. The Danish System II, on the other hand generally resembles the English system. In both cases there is a clear semantically motivated difference between epistemic and evidential adverbials. As far as the epistemic systems are concerned I show that they are in fact organised quite similarly in the two languages, although Group 2 of the English adverbials stands out. As far as the evidential adverbials are concerned I show that they are organized quite differently in the two languages. The Danish evidential adverbials are mono-source adverbials, i.e. they invariably specify one type of source, subjective, intersubjective or objective, while the English adverbials are typically unspecified between two source types at the structural level. Finally, in chapter 8, I end the dissertation by concluding that the presented analysis provides a coherent functional-structural description of the systems of epistemic and evidential adverbials in Danish and English and present some perspectives for further research.

AB - In this dissertation I investigate and compare how the notional categories of epistemic modality and evidentiality are structured by adverbial systems in Danish and English. The dissertation is founded on a hypothesis that speakers of Danish as well as English in their respective languages have access to a number of systematically organized sentence adverbials that allow them to specify which degree of force or which type of source supports the utterances they put forward. Sentence adverbials that specify degree of force may be called epistemic, while those that specify source may be called evidential. In Chapter 1, I present the two research questions the dissertation sets out to answer, viz. how are the notional categories of epistemic modality and evidentiality structured by adverbial systems in Danish and English? And: what are the differences and similarities between the systems of epistemic and evidential sentence adverbials in Danish and English? I argue that in comparison to the modal verbs in Danish and English, the group of epistemic and evidential adverbials has so far remained fairly unexplored as a grammatical category. In chapter 2, I present the theoretical framework of the dissertation, which is primarily constituted by Danish Functional Linguistics. To accommodate the dissertation's particular focus on sentence adverbials and the comparative aspect of the study, this framework is complemented by elements of Scandinavian polyphony theory as well as theory of contrastive linguistics. In chapter 3, I outline the tertium comparationis of the analysis. Content-wise, the comparison revolves around the two notional categories of ‘epistemic modality' and ‘evidentiality' while the grammatical category of ‘sentence adverbial' constitutes the expression based tertium. With inspiration in Kronning's (2004) characterization of epistemic modality and evidentiality as kunskapens styrka and kunskapens källa I argue that specification of ‘force' and specification of ‘source' can be seen as the primary functions of epistemic modality and evidentiality. In order to make these notions operational I draw on the definitions of epistemic and evidential meaning presented in Boye (2005). In Chapter 4, I present the method I have employed in the analysis of the epistemic and evidential adverbials. The method may be characterised as an integration of traditional methods of structural linguistics with methods inspired by corpus linguistics. For the purpose of the dissertation I have compiled a reference sample which consists of ten randomly selected contextualized examples of the adverbials under investigation drawn from www.politiken.dk and www.guardian.co.uk. The reference sample has been used as a hypothesis generating medium and a test frame, in a process which is most adequately described as abduction, in the sense of Peirce (1965 [1903]). Chapters 5 and 6 make up the bulk of the report. In these two chapters I investigate how the notional categories of epistemic modality and evidentiality are structured by adverbial systems in Danish and English. I show that the differences and similarities between the individual members of the epistemic and evidential systems in both languages can generally be explained by recourse to a limited number of distinctive features, of which force and source are the primary ones, while ‘modal factor' and ‘responsibility' are secondary ones. Epistemic adverbials are essentially concerned with the specification of force and secondarily with modal factor position, i.e. the specification of the origin of the source. Evidential adverbials are essentially concerned with the specification of source, and secondarily with the specification of responsibility, which concerns the relation between the speaker and the propositional content of the utterance. The investigation of the Danish adverbials (Chapter 5) includes the following adverbials (in alphabetical order): angivelig, antagelig, formentlig, formodentlig, givetvis, ikke nødvendigvis, muligvis, måske, nok, nødvendigvis, sandsynligvis, tilsyneladende, tydeligvis, utvivlsomt, vel, vist, øjensynlig and åbenbart. I show that it is possible to split this group into two distinct systems, System I and System II, on the basis of morphologic, syntactic and, especially, topological criteria. System I consists of nok, vel and vist, while the remaining adverbials belong to System II. I determine the members of System I to be epistemic-evidential adverbials because they concomitantly code force and source. The members of System II, on the other hand, are clearly divided into epistemic and evidential adverbials. The epistemic ones are: antagelig, formentlig, formodentlig, givetvis, ikke nødvendigvis, muligvis, måske, nødvendigvis, sandsynligvis and utvivlsomt, while the group of evidential adverbials consists of: angivelig, tilsyneladende, tydeligvis, øjensynlig and åbenbart. In the analysis I show that the difference between the adverbials can generally be explained by recourse to the mentioned four distinctive features. The investigation of the English adverbials (Chapter 6) includes the following adverbials (in alphabetical order): allegedly, apparently, certainly, clearly, definitely, evidently, inevitably, maybe, necessarily, not necessarily, obviously, perhaps, possibly, presumably, probably, reportedly, seemingly, surely and undoubtedly. On the basis of semantic criteria I divide these adverbials into two overall groups of epistemic and evidential adverbials. The epistemic adverbials are further divided into two subgroups: Group 1, which consists of adverbials that are concerned with the continuum ranging from possibility to necessity, viz. inevitably, maybe, necessarily, not necessarily, perhaps, possibly, presumably and probably, and Group 2, which consists of adverbials that constitute claims to certainty, viz. certainly, definitely, surely and undoubtedly. Similarly, the evidential adverbials are divided into two groups: Group 1, which consists of members that are concerned with perception (often in an abstract sense), viz. apparently, clearly, evidently, obviously and seemingly, and Group 2, which consists of adverbials that are concerned with report, viz. reportedly and allegedly. In the analysis I show that the difference between the members can generally be explained by recourse to the mentioned four distinctive features. In chapter 7, I compare the way the Danish and English systems are organized. The most significant overall difference I point out is that while Danish has two distinct adverbial systems that code epistemic modality and evidentiality, English, generally speaking, has only one. The Danish System I clearly stands out, both in terms of expression and content, and I argue that it is more grammaticalized than the other systems. The Danish System II, on the other hand generally resembles the English system. In both cases there is a clear semantically motivated difference between epistemic and evidential adverbials. As far as the epistemic systems are concerned I show that they are in fact organised quite similarly in the two languages, although Group 2 of the English adverbials stands out. As far as the evidential adverbials are concerned I show that they are organized quite differently in the two languages. The Danish evidential adverbials are mono-source adverbials, i.e. they invariably specify one type of source, subjective, intersubjective or objective, while the English adverbials are typically unspecified between two source types at the structural level. Finally, in chapter 8, I end the dissertation by concluding that the presented analysis provides a coherent functional-structural description of the systems of epistemic and evidential adverbials in Danish and English and present some perspectives for further research.

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