Promoting energy efficiency to a first class system design goal is an important research challenge. Although more energy-efficient hardware can be designed, it is software that controls the hardware; for a given system the potential for energy savings is likely to be much greater at the higher levels of abstraction in the system stack. Thus the greatest savings are expected from energy-aware software development, which is the vision of the EU ENTRA project. This article presents the concept of energy transparency as a foundation for energy-aware software development. We show how energy modelling of hardware is combined with static analysis to allow the programmer to understand the energy consumption of a program without executing it, thus enabling exploration of the design space taking energy into consideration. The paper concludes by summarising the current and future challenges identified in the ENTRA project.