Energy use by Eem Neanderthals

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Resumé

An analysis of energy use by Neanderthals in Northern Europe during the mild Eem interglacial period is carried out with consideration of the metabolic energy production required for compensating energy losses during sleep, at daily settlement activities and during hunting expeditions, including transport of food from slain animals back to the settlement. Additional energy sources for heat, security and cooking are derived from fireplaces in the open or within shelters such as caves or huts. The analysis leads to insights not available from archaeological findings that are mostly limited to durable items such as those made of stone: Even during the benign Eem period, Neanderthals faced a considerable heat-loss problem. Wearing tailored clothes or some similar measure was necessary for survival. An animal skin across the shoulder would not have sufficed to survive even average cold winter temperatures and body cooling by convection caused by wind. Clothes and particularly footwear had to be sewn together tightly in order to prevent intrusion of water or snow. The analysis of hunting activity evolvement in real time further shows that during summer warmth, transport of meat back to the base settlement would not be possible without some technique to avoid that the meat rots. The only likely technique is meat drying at which indicates further skills in Neanderthal societies that have not been identified by the killing site, other routes of investigation. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftJournal of Archaeological Science
Vol/bind36
Udgave nummer10
Sider (fra-til)2201-2205
ISSN0305-4403
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 2009

Citer dette

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title = "Energy use by Eem Neanderthals",
abstract = "An analysis of energy use by Neanderthals in Northern Europe during the mild Eem interglacial period is carried out with consideration of the metabolic energy production required for compensating energy losses during sleep, at daily settlement activities and during hunting expeditions, including transport of food from slain animals back to the settlement. Additional energy sources for heat, security and cooking are derived from fireplaces in the open or within shelters such as caves or huts. The analysis leads to insights not available from archaeological findings that are mostly limited to durable items such as those made of stone: Even during the benign Eem period, Neanderthals faced a considerable heat-loss problem. Wearing tailored clothes or some similar measure was necessary for survival. An animal skin across the shoulder would not have sufficed to survive even average cold winter temperatures and body cooling by convection caused by wind. Clothes and particularly footwear had to be sewn together tightly in order to prevent intrusion of water or snow. The analysis of hunting activity evolvement in real time further shows that during summer warmth, transport of meat back to the base settlement would not be possible without some technique to avoid that the meat rots. The only likely technique is meat drying at which indicates further skills in Neanderthal societies that have not been identified by the killing site, other routes of investigation. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.",
keywords = "Energy balance, Heat loss, Metabolism, Neanderthal, Eem interglacial, Fire, Clothes, Footwear, Meat drying",
author = "Bent S{\o}rensen",
year = "2009",
doi = "10.1016/j.jas.2009.06.003",
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volume = "36",
pages = "2201--2205",
journal = "Journal of Archaeological Science",
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Energy use by Eem Neanderthals. / Sørensen, Bent.

I: Journal of Archaeological Science, Bind 36, Nr. 10, 2009, s. 2201-2205.

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Energy use by Eem Neanderthals

AU - Sørensen, Bent

PY - 2009

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N2 - An analysis of energy use by Neanderthals in Northern Europe during the mild Eem interglacial period is carried out with consideration of the metabolic energy production required for compensating energy losses during sleep, at daily settlement activities and during hunting expeditions, including transport of food from slain animals back to the settlement. Additional energy sources for heat, security and cooking are derived from fireplaces in the open or within shelters such as caves or huts. The analysis leads to insights not available from archaeological findings that are mostly limited to durable items such as those made of stone: Even during the benign Eem period, Neanderthals faced a considerable heat-loss problem. Wearing tailored clothes or some similar measure was necessary for survival. An animal skin across the shoulder would not have sufficed to survive even average cold winter temperatures and body cooling by convection caused by wind. Clothes and particularly footwear had to be sewn together tightly in order to prevent intrusion of water or snow. The analysis of hunting activity evolvement in real time further shows that during summer warmth, transport of meat back to the base settlement would not be possible without some technique to avoid that the meat rots. The only likely technique is meat drying at which indicates further skills in Neanderthal societies that have not been identified by the killing site, other routes of investigation. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

AB - An analysis of energy use by Neanderthals in Northern Europe during the mild Eem interglacial period is carried out with consideration of the metabolic energy production required for compensating energy losses during sleep, at daily settlement activities and during hunting expeditions, including transport of food from slain animals back to the settlement. Additional energy sources for heat, security and cooking are derived from fireplaces in the open or within shelters such as caves or huts. The analysis leads to insights not available from archaeological findings that are mostly limited to durable items such as those made of stone: Even during the benign Eem period, Neanderthals faced a considerable heat-loss problem. Wearing tailored clothes or some similar measure was necessary for survival. An animal skin across the shoulder would not have sufficed to survive even average cold winter temperatures and body cooling by convection caused by wind. Clothes and particularly footwear had to be sewn together tightly in order to prevent intrusion of water or snow. The analysis of hunting activity evolvement in real time further shows that during summer warmth, transport of meat back to the base settlement would not be possible without some technique to avoid that the meat rots. The only likely technique is meat drying at which indicates further skills in Neanderthal societies that have not been identified by the killing site, other routes of investigation. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

KW - Energy balance

KW - Heat loss

KW - Metabolism

KW - Neanderthal

KW - Eem interglacial

KW - Fire

KW - Clothes

KW - Footwear

KW - Meat drying

U2 - 10.1016/j.jas.2009.06.003

DO - 10.1016/j.jas.2009.06.003

M3 - Journal article

VL - 36

SP - 2201

EP - 2205

JO - Journal of Archaeological Science

JF - Journal of Archaeological Science

SN - 0305-4403

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