Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common cancer in men and one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths. Early detection is the key to successful treatment and provides the greatest chance to cure the patient. Currently, early detection involves screening for prostate-specific antigen levels in blood, which is not a tumor-specific biomarker. There is a critical need to develop clinically useful methods for screening for more reliable biomarkers. Here, we introduce an electrochemical biosensor that measures the concentrations of the amino acids tyrosine and tryptophan, and propose it as a possible diagnostic and prognostic tool for PCa. The limits of detection of tyrosine and tryptophan using the electrochemical sensors were 1.15 and 1.13 μmol/L in 1:10 urine: PBS, respectively. This study is the first to present electrochemical measurements of tyrosine and tryptophan directly in patient urine samples. We demonstrated an inverse correlation between the measured electrochemical signals and the severity of PCa. The most notable observation was a significant difference between controls and metastatic PCa patients (P ≤ 0.001). This observation was further validated using Liquid-Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Our data provides the basis for further research with electrochemical measurements of tyrosine and tryptophan as potential biomarkers for PCa.
- Electrochemical sensing
- Prostate cancer