Carbon export is facilitated by sea urchins transforming kelp detritus

Karen Filbee-Dexter, Morten Foldager Pedersen, Stein Frederiksen, Kjell Magnus Norderhaug, Eli Rinde, Trond Kristiansen, Jon Albretsen , Thomas Wernberg

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

Resumé

With the increasing imperative for societies to act to curb climate change by increasing carbon stores and sinks, it has become critical to understand how organic carbon is produced, released, transformed, transported, and sequestered within and across
ecosystems. In freshwater and open-ocean systems, shredders play a significant and well-known role in transforming and mobilizing carbon, but their role in the carbon cycle of coastal ecosystems is largely unknown. Marine plants such as kelps
produce vast amounts of detritus, which can be captured and consumed by shedders as it traverses the seafloor. We measured capture and consumption rates of kelp detritus by sea urchins across four sampling periods and over a range of kelp
detritus production rates and sea urchin densities, in northern Norway. When sea urchin densities exceeded 4 m−2, the sea urchins captured and consumed a high percentage (ca. 80%) of kelp detritus on shallow reefs. We calculated that between
1.3 and 10.8 kg of kelp m−2 are shredded annually from these reefs. We used a hydrodynamic dispersal model to show that transformation of kelp blades to sea urchin feces increased its export distance fourfold. Our findings show that sea urchins
can accelerate and extend the export of carbon to neighboring areas. This collector–shredder pathway could represent a significant flow of small particulate carbon from kelp forests to deep-sea areas, where it can subsidize benthic communities
or contribute to the global carbon sink.
OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftOecologia
Vol/bind192
Udgave nummer1
Sider (fra-til)213-225
Antal sider13
ISSN0029-8549
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 2020

Bibliografisk note

Important note from the Publisher regarding the attached version of the article: “This is a pre-print of an article published in Oecologia. The final authenticated version is available online at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-019-04571-1”.

Citer dette

Filbee-Dexter, K., Pedersen, M. F., Frederiksen, S., Norderhaug, K. M., Rinde, E., Kristiansen, T., ... Wernberg, T. (2020). Carbon export is facilitated by sea urchins transforming kelp detritus. Oecologia, 192(1), 213-225. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-019-04571-1
Filbee-Dexter, Karen ; Pedersen, Morten Foldager ; Frederiksen, Stein ; Norderhaug, Kjell Magnus ; Rinde, Eli ; Kristiansen, Trond ; Albretsen , Jon ; Wernberg, Thomas. / Carbon export is facilitated by sea urchins transforming kelp detritus. I: Oecologia. 2020 ; Bind 192, Nr. 1. s. 213-225.
@article{01d440ef85ff4921be2ad1d5b0c61be7,
title = "Carbon export is facilitated by sea urchins transforming kelp detritus",
abstract = "With the increasing imperative for societies to act to curb climate change by increasing carbon stores and sinks, it has become critical to understand how organic carbon is produced, released, transformed, transported, and sequestered within and across ecosystems. In freshwater and open-ocean systems, shredders play a signi cant and well-known role in transforming and mobilizing carbon, but their role in the carbon cycle of coastal ecosystems is largely unknown. Marine plants such as kelps produce vast amounts of detritus, which can be captured and consumed by shedders as it traverses the sea oor. We meas- ured capture and consumption rates of kelp detritus by sea urchins across four sampling periods and over a range of kelp detritus production rates and sea urchin densities, in northern Norway. When sea urchin densities exceeded 4 m−2, the sea urchins captured and consumed a high percentage (ca. 80{\%}) of kelp detritus on shallow reefs. We calculated that between 1.3 and 10.8 kg of kelp m−2 are shredded annually from these reefs. We used a hydrodynamic dispersal model to show that transformation of kelp blades to sea urchin feces increased its export distance fourfold. Our ndings show that sea urchins can accelerate and extend the export of carbon to neighboring areas. This collector–shredder pathway could represent a signi cant ow of small particulate carbon from kelp forests to deep-sea areas, where it can subsidize benthic communities or contribute to the global carbon sink.",
author = "Karen Filbee-Dexter and Pedersen, {Morten Foldager} and Stein Frederiksen and Norderhaug, {Kjell Magnus} and Eli Rinde and Trond Kristiansen and Jon Albretsen and Thomas Wernberg",
note = "Important note from the Publisher regarding the attached version of the article: “This is a pre-print of an article published in Oecologia. The final authenticated version is available online at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-019-04571-1”.",
year = "2020",
doi = "10.1007/s00442-019-04571-1",
language = "English",
volume = "192",
pages = "213--225",
journal = "Oecologia",
issn = "0029-8549",
publisher = "Physica-Verlag",
number = "1",

}

Filbee-Dexter, K, Pedersen, MF, Frederiksen, S, Norderhaug, KM, Rinde, E, Kristiansen, T, Albretsen , J & Wernberg, T 2020, 'Carbon export is facilitated by sea urchins transforming kelp detritus', Oecologia, bind 192, nr. 1, s. 213-225. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-019-04571-1

Carbon export is facilitated by sea urchins transforming kelp detritus. / Filbee-Dexter, Karen; Pedersen, Morten Foldager; Frederiksen, Stein; Norderhaug, Kjell Magnus; Rinde, Eli; Kristiansen, Trond; Albretsen , Jon; Wernberg, Thomas.

I: Oecologia, Bind 192, Nr. 1, 2020, s. 213-225.

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Carbon export is facilitated by sea urchins transforming kelp detritus

AU - Filbee-Dexter, Karen

AU - Pedersen, Morten Foldager

AU - Frederiksen, Stein

AU - Norderhaug, Kjell Magnus

AU - Rinde, Eli

AU - Kristiansen, Trond

AU - Albretsen , Jon

AU - Wernberg, Thomas

N1 - Important note from the Publisher regarding the attached version of the article: “This is a pre-print of an article published in Oecologia. The final authenticated version is available online at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-019-04571-1”.

PY - 2020

Y1 - 2020

N2 - With the increasing imperative for societies to act to curb climate change by increasing carbon stores and sinks, it has become critical to understand how organic carbon is produced, released, transformed, transported, and sequestered within and across ecosystems. In freshwater and open-ocean systems, shredders play a signi cant and well-known role in transforming and mobilizing carbon, but their role in the carbon cycle of coastal ecosystems is largely unknown. Marine plants such as kelps produce vast amounts of detritus, which can be captured and consumed by shedders as it traverses the sea oor. We meas- ured capture and consumption rates of kelp detritus by sea urchins across four sampling periods and over a range of kelp detritus production rates and sea urchin densities, in northern Norway. When sea urchin densities exceeded 4 m−2, the sea urchins captured and consumed a high percentage (ca. 80%) of kelp detritus on shallow reefs. We calculated that between 1.3 and 10.8 kg of kelp m−2 are shredded annually from these reefs. We used a hydrodynamic dispersal model to show that transformation of kelp blades to sea urchin feces increased its export distance fourfold. Our ndings show that sea urchins can accelerate and extend the export of carbon to neighboring areas. This collector–shredder pathway could represent a signi cant ow of small particulate carbon from kelp forests to deep-sea areas, where it can subsidize benthic communities or contribute to the global carbon sink.

AB - With the increasing imperative for societies to act to curb climate change by increasing carbon stores and sinks, it has become critical to understand how organic carbon is produced, released, transformed, transported, and sequestered within and across ecosystems. In freshwater and open-ocean systems, shredders play a signi cant and well-known role in transforming and mobilizing carbon, but their role in the carbon cycle of coastal ecosystems is largely unknown. Marine plants such as kelps produce vast amounts of detritus, which can be captured and consumed by shedders as it traverses the sea oor. We meas- ured capture and consumption rates of kelp detritus by sea urchins across four sampling periods and over a range of kelp detritus production rates and sea urchin densities, in northern Norway. When sea urchin densities exceeded 4 m−2, the sea urchins captured and consumed a high percentage (ca. 80%) of kelp detritus on shallow reefs. We calculated that between 1.3 and 10.8 kg of kelp m−2 are shredded annually from these reefs. We used a hydrodynamic dispersal model to show that transformation of kelp blades to sea urchin feces increased its export distance fourfold. Our ndings show that sea urchins can accelerate and extend the export of carbon to neighboring areas. This collector–shredder pathway could represent a signi cant ow of small particulate carbon from kelp forests to deep-sea areas, where it can subsidize benthic communities or contribute to the global carbon sink.

U2 - 10.1007/s00442-019-04571-1

DO - 10.1007/s00442-019-04571-1

M3 - Journal article

VL - 192

SP - 213

EP - 225

JO - Oecologia

JF - Oecologia

SN - 0029-8549

IS - 1

ER -

Filbee-Dexter K, Pedersen MF, Frederiksen S, Norderhaug KM, Rinde E, Kristiansen T et al. Carbon export is facilitated by sea urchins transforming kelp detritus. Oecologia. 2020;192(1):213-225. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-019-04571-1