An efficient and green method for regio- and chemo-selective Friedel–Crafts acylations using a deep eutectic mixture ([CholineCl][ZnCl2]3)

Tran Phuong Hoang, Hai Truong Nguyen, Poul Erik Hansen, Thach Ngoc Le

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[CholineCl][ZnCl2]3, a deep eutectic solvent between choline chloride and ZnCl2, has been used as a dual function catalyst and green solvent for the Friedel–Crafts acylation of aromatic compounds instead of using the moisture-sensitive Lewis acids and volatile organic solvents. The reactions are performed with high yields under microwave irradiation with short reaction times for the synthesis of ketones. Interestingly, indole derivatives are regioselectively acylated in the 3-position under mild conditions with high yields without NH protection. Three new ketone products are synthesized. [CholineCl][ZnCl2]3 is easily synthesized from choline chloride and zinc chloride at a low cost, with easy purification and environmentally benign compounds. [CholineCl][ZnCl2]3 can be reused up to five times without loss of catalytic activity, making it ideal in industrial processes.
TidsskriftRSC Advances
Udgave nummer43
Sider (fra-til)37031-37038
Antal sider8
StatusUdgivet - 1 aug. 2016


  • Deep eutectic solvents
  • ionic liquids
  • Friede-Crafts acylation
  • choline chloride
  • zinc chloride

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